Learners' errors in pronunciation ( )... from various sources:
The first thing that needs to be done is to ( )... that learners can hear and identify the sounds you want to teach. The same ( )... for intonation, rhythm and stress. This can be done by:
- a particular sound may not ( )... in the mother tongue, so that learners are not used to forming it
and tend to ( )... the nearest equivalent they know
- a sound does exist in the mother tongue , but not as a ( )... phoneme, so the learners do not ( )... it
as a distinct sound that makes a difference to ( )... . A totally new sound is often easily perceived
as ( )..., and once you can ( )... a sound you are well on the way to being able to ( )... it. But if
you cannot hear it you cannot even attempt to pronounce it, and the problem of perception needs
to be overcome before any ( )... can be made.
- The learners have the actual sounds ( )..., but have not learned the stress ( )... of the word or
group of words, or they are using an ( )... from their mother tongue which is ( )... to the target
language. The result is a foreign-sounding accent and possibly ( )....
Perception of sounds can be checked while using single words or even syllables, but work on
stress and intonation ( )... always needs to be based on longer units.
- ( )... imitation
- seeing if learners can ( )... between minimal pairs such as ship / sheep or man / men, thick / tick, etc
- ( )... acceptable with unacceptable pronunciation